Endocrine System

The Endocrine system is composed of bodies of glandular tissues which uses hormones to controls and coordinates body’s metabolic  functions.

All body processes are divided into two-
1) Anabolism – Formation of new cells.
2) Catabolism – Breakdown of cells.
Both combinely called as Metabolism.


Mechanisms of Hormones Action

Hormones are the catalyst of these anabolic and catabolic processes. They are responsible for chemical equilibrium.
Endocrines in our body are as follows:

1) Pitutary-1.
2) Thyroid-1.
3) Parathyroid.
4) Thymus-1.
5) Adrenal-2.
6) Pancreas-1.
7) Testis -2
8) Ovaries-2

Pituitary Gland

Its a Reddish and brownish coloured small oval shape gland. Its also called as “master of all the glands”. Is located in pituitary fossa of sphenoid bone.

It has two lobes-Anterior and Posterior lobes.
Anterior lobe of Pituitary hormone secrets the following hormones.
1) Growth hormone-Secreted up to 25 years.
2) Thyroid stimulating hormone.
3) Parathyroid stimulating hormone.
4) Adrenocorticothropic hormone.
5) Melanocyte stimulating hormone.
6) Follicular stimulating hormone.
7) Prolactin.

Posterior lobe of Pituitary Gland secretes the following hormones

1) Anti-diuretic hormone-Controls water balance.
2) Oxytocin-Helps in delivery.

This way this gland controls all the  other glands of the body.

Pineal Gland

It’s a small pea – sized  gland in the middle of the brain, attached to the roof of third ventricle.
It Calcifies at the time of puberty.
it Secretes Melatonin.

Thyroid Gland

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Is the gland located just below the  larynx.
It Weights around – 25 gm. and is Composed of various cells called as thyroid follicles.
It has Two lobes- connected by isthmus. With the help of iodine they form Thyroxine – triiodothyroxine – T3 and tetraiodothyroxine – T4

Functions of thyroid Gland

1) Regulation of growth and development.
2) Regulation of metabolism – Carbohydrate and fat catabolism. [Mostly catabolic.-Increase metabolic rate.] Protein         synthesis.
3) Increases reactivity of nervous system. [Increase in heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, Blood pressure,     nervousness].

Parathyroid Gland

Situated below the thyroid gland.
has 2 lobes.
Secretes parathyroid hormone [PTH] Functions-
1) Increases absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphate from intestine.
2) Activation of vitamin – D.
Thus helps to maintain bones healthy.


Is Situated at the bifurcation of bronchus.
Pinkish in colour, having 2 lobes. At birth it weights -10gm. In childhood-30 to 40 gm. – Then shrinks naturally.
Helps to form antibodies and helps in the development of sex organs.


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Exocrine as well as endocrine in function.
Exocrine as it  helps in digestion.
Endocrine part of pancreas  are as follows-
It has clusters of cells called as Islets of Langerhans. They have
1)Alpha cells which secretes glucagon that helps in the Conversion of glycogen into glucose in liver.
2)Beta cells which secretes insulin that helps in uptake of glucose by tissues.
3)Delta cells which secretes growth hormone inhibiting factor.

Adrenal Glands

They are a pair of glands situated above each kidney.
Gland contains Cortex and Medulla parts. The inner medulla and outer cortex of  the adrenal gland each secretes different hormones.
The Adrenal Cortex secretes-
1) Aldosterone- Maitain blood volume and pressure.

2) Glucocorticoid- Regulates blood sugar.
3) Minerlocorticoid- Regulates minerals in blood..

The adrenal Medulla secretes-
Adrenalin and noradrenalin- This helps in activation of sympathetic nervous system. [In stress, fear]


They are the part of female sex glands which secrete the following hormones
1) Estrogen – This helps in egg maturation.
2) Progesterone – They help to regulate menstrual cycle and development of female sexual characters.
3) Relaxin – In pregnancy, relaxes such organs which takes part in delivery.


They are the part of male reproductive organs. They lie inside the scrotum.
They Secrete Testosterone.

Testosterone is a male sex hormone which Stimulates, Develops and maintains male sexual characters.

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Asana plan

  • Pituitary/pineal
  • Shashank asana
  • Uttanasana
  • Vrikshasana
  • Natrajasana
  • Virabhadrasana 3
  • Sirshasana
  • Adho mukho svanasana
  • Matsyasana
  • Padhastasana
  • Ardhamatsendrasana
  • Anahatasana
  •  Shalabhasana
  • Dhanurasana
  • Bhujangasana
  • Sarvangasana
  • Halasana
  • Karnapidasana
  • Malasana
  • Trikonasana
  • Pranayama
  • Anulom vilom
  • Bhastrika
  • Kapalbhati
  • Vilom pranayama
  • Mudras for endocrine system
  • Gyan mudra
  • Chin mudra
  • Tattva mudras

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